Week 2: Featuring Art Tatum

Reminder of our Class Contract



Image from www.theodysseyonline.com
Image may be copyrighted.


Also not before bed.

Jazz Pianist Ron Elliston (1937-2015)
My Jazz Teacher from the Past.
University of Maryland
After playing for our class one day in the 1970s:

"I borrowed your energy."

A Main Focus for Today
Black and White Connections Through Music



Art Tatum
(1909-1956)

Jerome Kern
(1885-1945)
All the Things You Are (1939)

Ray Noble
(1903-1978)
Cherokee (1938)

Walter Gross
(1909-1967)
Tenderly (1946)

Vincent Youmans
(1898-1946)
Tea for Two (1925)

"Primary Colors of Music"


Courtesy Jon Pontrello

Rhythm: Two Basic Rhythms in Western Music

The March (4/4 Time)


John Philip Sousa
(1854-1832)
The Waltz (3/4 Time)


Johnann Strauss II
(1825-1899)

Images from wikipedia.org

Musical Parents of Jazz

European (Western) Rhythm + African (Non-Western) Polyrhythm

European Rhythm & African Polyrhythm > Scott Joplin

Maple Leaf Rag (4/4 Time)

Bethena (3/4 Time)


Images from wikipedia.org

Musical Parents of Samba and Bossa Nova

European (Western) Rhythm + African (Non-Western) Polyrhythm

Blues



Wynton Marsalis Explains the Blues, Backstage at Lincoln Center (1994) with John Goberman


Wynton Marsalis (b. 1961), Artistic Director of Jazz at Lincoln Center, NY

Blues is Like a Vaccination



Albert Murray (1916-2013)

W. C. (William Christopher) Handy (1873-1958)

St. Louis Blues (1914)

"The Blue Vaccine"


Aural Vaccination

Clipart Courtesy clipart-library.com

The Blue Vaccine
"Blues"
The Zal Vaccine
"Bittersweet Melancholy"

Frédéric Chopin (1810-1849)
The Zal Vaccine The "Bossa Nova" Blue Vaccine

Frédéric Chopin (1810-1849)
Preludes in E minor (Published 1839)

Antônio Carlos Jobim (1927-1994)
How Insensitive (1963)

Images may be copyrighted.

The Blue Vaccine The Zal Vaccine

Art Tatum (1909-1956)
"All the Things You Are," Jerome Kern

Frédéric Chopin (1810-1849)
Prelude in E minor

Images may be copyrighted.

Classifying Jazz Works

  1. Blues (12-bar formula), e.g., St. Louis Blues (W. C. Handy)
  2. Standards as Basis, e.g., "All the Things You Are" (Jerome Kern)
  3. Original Composition, e.g., St. Louis Blues



W. C. Handy
(1873-1958)

Jerome Kern
(1885-1945)

Art Tatum
(1909-1956)

Images may be copyrighted.

Western vs Non-Western Music

Claude Debussy (1862-1918) and the Gamelan Ensemble

Universal Expedition (1889) in Paris, a World's Fair



Western vs Non-Western Music

Claude Debussy (1862-1918) and the Gamelan Ensemble

Universal Expedition (1889) in Paris, a World's Fair

Debussy in a letter to a friend in 1895: "But my poor friend! Do you remember the Javanese music, able to express every shade of meaning, even unmentionable shades . . . which make our tonic and dominant seem like ghosts, for use by naughty little children? (Correspondence de Claude Debussy et Pierre Louÿs (1893-1904), ed. Henri Borgeaud [Paris: Librairie Jose Corti, 1945], p. 41, quoted in Tamagawa, p. 21).

"There used to be - indeed, despite the troubles that civilization has brought, there still are - some wonderful peoples who learn music as easily as one learns to breathe." Claude Debussy.

Source: "Debussy and the Javanese Gamelan," Brent Hugh, May 3, 1997

Claude Debussy (1862-1918)
was inspired by the Gamelan, to free himself from a tonal key center.

Extensive use of the Whole-Tone Scale.
Equal distance between each adjacent tone => tonal blur.

Impressionism

Example of Use: Isle of Joy (1904), L'isle joyeuse (French Title)


Three Musical Scales

Blues Scale (Invented by Black Jazz Musicians)

Primary Colors with Add Ons

We need to learn about the 2-5-1 progression.

Blues (three versions below)

1 - 1 - 1 - 1
4 - 4 - 1 - 1
5 - 4 - 1 - 1

1 - 4 - 1 - 1
4 - 4 - 1 - 1
5 - 4 - 1 - 1

1 - 4 - 1 - 1
4 - 4 - 1 - 1
5 - 4 - 1 - 5

The 2 - 5 - 1

ii7 - V7 - IM7

Laura by David Raksin is Built on Four 2-5-1 Progressions

Hollywood Heartbreak ("Blue Zal") with the 2-5-1

Art Tatum (1909-1956)


Cherokee, music by Ray Noble (1938)
Tenderly, music Walter Gross (1946) - A Torch song
Tea for Two, music by Vincent Youmans (1925)